A distinct and single anti-corruption institution cannot function as an omnipotent and supreme institution. In order to combat and eradicate corruption it is necessary to reform all governmental institutions and make them capable of effectively implementing their mandate and developing coordination and inter linkages among entities. Among underlying theoretical models, monitoring and incentives programs are typically based on the principal–agent model. In this model the “principal”, the population at large, wants to achieve some goals and the “agent”, typically a civil servant, seeks to implement this goal.
It is often difficult for the principal to know if the agent is achieving the principal’s goal or following his or her own agenda, given that the end goal can be difficult to observe. Monitoring and incentives model increases the probability of agent’s punishment, who is engaging in corrupt activities. Therefore, monitoring is not effective without incentives agendas. The anti-corruption strategies in Afghanistan and Pakistan should include monitoring and incentives programs to increase the efficiency of policies.
Afghanistan and Pakistan need to adopt a zero tolerance policy on corruption. If there is a mutual standard in the society, where small corruption is tolerated in private sector, then it is unfeasible for the society to eradicate corruption and become clean.
Challenges and Recommendations
- Firstly, given these countries’ (Afghanistan and Pakistan) economic problems and political fragility, it is unlikely to expect reforms to eradicate corruption in a few months. Reforms should concentrate on role of information and foreign constraints- a free press, broad auditing, democratic controls, the courts and external strain from international institutions.
- Secondly, there should be adequate legal support for the Anti-corruption Agencies (ACA) to investigate corruption. To investigate corruption and carry out effective enforcement a government needs strong power and political will by passing effective legislations.
- Thirdly, the ACA should be independent in implementing of its enforcement work without political obstructions and interference.
Ahmad Rashid Jamal is an MA student at Universität Konstanz.